MAC OS X Leopard

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Dock & Finder navigation

Two distinct features of Mac OS X are the “Dock” and the “Finder.” The Dock is a toolbar with icon aliases to applications and folders. The Finder shows all the directories in the computer (the beginning of the directory structure is at the top level of “Volumes” rather than the desktop).

To open Finder view, click the Finder icon in the dock (fig 1).

fig 1

Four main finder views:

Icon View
List View
Column View
Cover Flow

fig 6

Use these Navigation Buttons in Finder (fig 6):

a) Back Button

b) Forward Button

c) Switch to Icon View

d) Switch to List View

e) Switch to Column View

f) Switch to Cover Flow View

g) Quick Look/Slideshow

h) Lists folder options


The dock mainly consists of application aliases, to easily access programs. The rest of the dock (right side) is reserved for Stacks and the trash can.(fig 7) Stacks are folders that make accessing commonly used files easy to get to. Folders containing many files will be displayed in a table (fig 8) and stacks with fewer files will be displayed in an arch. (fig 9)You may also find any minimized windows in this area of the dock. To add an application or stack to the dock just drag and drop the icon into desired position.

fig 7

fig 8

fig 9

Quick Look

fig 10

Quick look is a new feature in Leopard that en ables the user to see a preview or even a slide show of files. To activate quick look, choose a file or files and click on the Quick look button in a finder or press the space bar from finder or Desktop. (fig 10)


Using the button to “List folder options,” you can see the commands and options for files and folders (fig 11).

You can also get these options by holding Ctrl.png when clicking the desktop and selecting a file, a folder, or several folders or files.

If you select “Show view options” from the menu, you can change the view of specific folders, arrangement, information, etc. in the Finder and on the Desktop. Comm.png -J will also bring up the Show view options (fig 12)

Options in List view

fig 11
fig 12 Options in List view

Moving Files

Move files by dragging and dropping:

1) Click the file you wish to move and hold the mouse button down.

2) Drag the file to its destination and release the mouse button.

Ways to drag and drop multiple files:

1) Use the mouse to highlight multiple files. To do this, click the first file in a list, hold the mouse button down, and move the cursor to highlight the other files you want to move.

fig 13

2) Click the first file, hold Comm.png, and click the other files you wish to move, release Comm.png, and then drag and drop the files (fig 13).

Use this for files that are not located next to one another in the Finder window.

3) Click one file on either end of the list, hold down Shift button.png, and then click the last file in the list. This will highlight all files in between those two selected files.

Deselect files:

fig 14

Hold Comm.png, and click the files you do not want (fig 14).

To move files to a new folder:

fig 15

1) Use the List Folder Options button in Finder to create a new folder (fig 15).

2) Then drag and drop the files into that folder.

New folder shortcut: Shift comm N sc.png

fig 16
fig 17

Connecting to Servers

1.From the Finder click Go -> Connect to Server... (fig 16).

Shortcut: Comm.png -K

2. Connnect to

3. Use login information supplied by professor.

4. Choose volume that you wish to access and click OK. Volume will be added to desktop and may also be accessed through finder.

Note: You may also connect to server in a finder window choose server under "Shared" and click Connect As. (fig 17)

Home Directories

fig 18

Mac OS X has user home directories so multiple users can share a system without interfering with anyone else’s personal settings. You can access this login by clicking on the current user name on the top right hand corner of the Menu bar (fig 18).


Remember when using Finder, that when a CD, DVD, or external device is added to the system, it does not mount to the desktop (fig 19) although it will appear on the physical desktop, if it is set to do so (fig 20).

fig 19
fig 20

Set External Devices to appear on desktop:

1) In Finder or the Desktop, go to the menu bar and select “Finder” then “Preferences.” (fig 21)

2) In the window, select the “General” tab.

3) Click to put a checkmark next to “CDs, DVDs, and iPods” under “Show these items on the Desktop.” (fig 22)

fig 21
fig 22

fig 23
fig 24

Ejecting Disks & Devices

Ejecting items from a Mac (such as hard-drives, Firewire devices, USB devices, network volumes) is different from a PC. You must eject the items from the desktop or else they might become corrupted if not properly removed, and you will lose all the information on the disk.

Four options:

1) Click the eject button next to the disk or network drive in the Finder window (fig 23).

2) Drag items to the trash can in the dock. When you start dragging the icon to the trash, it turns into an eject button.

3) Right click volume from desktop and choose Eject "volume name" (fig 24)

4) Select item + Comm.png + E

Force Quit

If the program you are running has crashed or has come upon some kind of problem, you can “force quit” instead of restarting the system.

To force quit:

Choose “Force Quit” from the Apple menu (fig 25) to open its window (fig 26).

fig 25
fig 26

Shortcut: Comm.png - option - esc

Note:You can also relaunch Finder through the Force Quit Applications window.

Crashed file backups

Many programs such as Microsoft Word or InDesign will make backups so your work won’t be lost during a force quit. If the program has this option, restart the program and reopen the file from the program.

You should copy the old information and make a new file in case the old file was corrupted. Unfortunately, programs such as Photoshop and Illustrator do not have this function.

Quit from Dock

For several reasons, it may be easier to quit programs from the dock (such as if there are several running and you do not want to go through each to quit from the menu).

1) In the dock, roll the mouse over the program you wish to exit.

2) Hold the mouse button down or right-click and a menu will pop up, choose Quit (fig 27).

fig 27

You can also use the Force Quit option from the dock if a program is hanging or has crashed (or if you started it accidentally and don’t want it to load).

Activity Monitor

You can use the Activity Monitor in the Utilities folder to keep track of computer usage.

Location: Applications/Utilities/Activity Monitor

To force quit:

“My Processes,” the active programs that the current user (student) has open, will be listed.

For example, Activity Monitor will show that an application is not responding (or crashed). If this lasts for several minutes, then you need to force quit the unresponsive program.

1) Select the unresponsive application and click on quit process.

2) Select Force Quit. The program should now quit, and the light under the appliction icon should have been removed from the dock.

Adding Ink Jet Printers

fig 28

1) Open the Print & Fax from within System Preferences. Path -- /Applications/System Preferences (fig 28).

fig 29

2) Then click the “Add” button to add printers (fig 29).

3) Click the IP tab – Then use the pulldown menu under Protocol to select “Internet Printing Protocol-IPP” (fig 30).

4) Enter data: Type in the printer’s IP address. (fig 31)

fig 30
fig 31

5) Use this format to change the name of the printer you added:

• Arts121_Color_Epson4000-MK

• Arts121_Color_Epson4000-PK

Then set location to lab location.

6) In the pulldown menu, select the correct Epson driver if it is not already selected and the Epson printer hardware addresses will appear in the menu.

Note: If a printer does not appear in the menu, the printer is either not turned on or the driver is not installed. See management for drivers if they are not found on system.

Then click "Add."

Add a laser printer

1) Follow steps 1-6 for “Adding Ink Jet printers.”

Add Duplexer

2) In the next dialog window, select “Duplex Unit” for the HP8150, HP5200, HP5550. Then press “Continue” to complete the installation.


Expose is a desktop navigation tool built into OS 10.4. Navigate through your desktop and use shortcut keys instead of maximizing and minimizing windows.

Expose Shortcuts: F9 f10 f11.png

Note: Shortcuts can be changed in System Preferences.

fig 30

If there are several windows open (fig 30), use Expose to navigate these windows quickly, and easily using your mouse. The program even tells you which window is which.

fig 31

F9 button.png shows all active windows.

• Rollover: Highlights window and displays name or web site. (fig 31)

F9 button.png again returns windows to original positions.

F10 button.png shows open windows within a program.

Tab button.png navigates between program windows.

F10 button.png again returns windows to original positions.

F11 button.png gets directly to Desktop (fig 32).

fig 32

F11 button.png again returns open windows to screen.

More navigation

Although the function is not part of Expose, you can navigate between open programs.

1) Tap Comm.png Tab button.png to switch between open programs.

2) Hold Comm.png, tap Tab button.png to toggle between programs.

a) Multiple Tab button.png taps goes to next program.

b) Use mouse to choose programs in toggle window view.


Spotlight is Apple’s powerful new search tool. You don’t even need to know the exact name of the file you are looking for. Even just the date created would be enough.

To use spotlight:

1) Click the magnifying glass on the top right corner of the screen (fig 33).

fig 33

fig 34

2) Type in a file name or word, and it will find any instance of the phrase in your search (fig 34).

If you are searching for a Word document, and you do not know the titles of the document, Spotlight will search the text of documents for a general subject.

You can also search with spotlight from the Finder window (fig 35).

fig 35

Smart Folders

If you are going to be making a search very often, Spotlight has a function called Smart Folders, which are saved searches.

Ways to make Smart Folders

1) In the Apple Menu (in Finder or the Desktop) go to “File” then “New Smart Folder.” (fig 35)

fig 35

Shortcut: Comm.png + option + N

2) After performing a Spotlight search in Finder, hit the “Save” button.

fig 36

To use Smart Folders

Smart Folders can be found in the Finder window. Just click to use them, and Spotlight will perform the search automatically (fig 36).

The search will always stay current since Spotlight constantly updates information in the Smart Folders.


Dashboard is a new program installed with OS 10.4. It brings up small programs called “Widgets.” Widgets offer mini controls at the user’s fingertips.

Widget examples

fig 37

• Clock (fig 37)

fig 38

• Calendar (fig 38)

fig 39

• Calculator (fig 39)

fig 40

• Weather information (fig 40)

• Translators

• Radios

Activate dashboard

fig 41

1) Choose the Dashboard icon in the dock (fig 41).

2) Shortcut: F12 button.png

Add Widgets

1) Add ones from system:

  • a) With Dashboard open, click on the “+” on the bottom left hand corner to open the widget bar.

  • b) Click to choose widgets or drag them off the bar. Close the bar or a widget by clicking “X.” (fig 42)

2) Click on “More Widgets” to get to the Apple website through Safari. Widgets there are free, but third party widgets may cost money.

fig 42

Archiving & Unarchiving

fig 43

Create .zip files easily with the “archiving” function in Mac OS 10.4.

Create .zip file

1) Select a file or a multiple files. Right click, and an option to archive the files will pop up in a pull down menu (fig 43).

2) Your files will then be copied into a compressed file that will be named after the folder you compressed or “” if created from multiple files (fig 44).

3) Rename a file by clicking its name until a cursor appears (fig 45).

fig 44
fig 45

Unarchive a file

1) Double-click the file you want to decompress.

2) After it decompresses, a folder with the same name will appear.

Burning Disks

Mac OS 10.4 also has built-in disk burning capabilities for CDs and DVDs.

1) Pop in a blank disk, and a dialog window will open (fig 66).

2) Hit “OK,” and Finder will open. Notice the blank disk mounted with a burn button next to it (fig 67).

3) Drag files you want to burn to the disk icon (fig 67).

fig 66
fig 67

fig 68

4) Hit the burn icon to open a dialog window where you can either burn the disk or save the burn folder for another time (fig 68)

fig 69

Burn Folders

You can also create burn folders separately.

1) Go to the Apple Menu (in Finder or Desktop) and select “File” then “New Burn Folder.” (fig 69) Shortcut: Hold + click in a directory.

2) Drag files to the Burn Folder (fig 70).

3) To burn, put in a blank disk and click on the button next to the Burn Folder in Finder (fig 71).

fig 70
fig 71

Disk Utility

Disk Utility is versatile enough to do everything from formatting disks to burning files.

Location: /Applications/Utilities/DiskUtility

Create disk image

Disk image files are helpful for burning disks.

1) Go to the “File” menu, select “New,” and then select “Blank Disk Image” or “Disk Image from Folder....” (fig 72)

2) Your disk image file will be the same as the folder. In the pull-down menus, choose a location for your file. Keep the format at “compressed” and encryption “none.” (fig 73)

3) You can burn the disk at any time.

fig 72
fig 73

Burning to CD/DVD

You can burn disks from saved disk images.

1) After creating a disk image, select it in the Disk Utility window. Press burn button or go to the “Images” menu and select “Burn.” (fig 74)


If you do not select a disk image, a dialog window will open so you can look for one (fig 75).

2) In the burning dialog window, select your preferences, and hit “Burn” when you’re done (fig 76).

Hit “OK” in the dialog window when the burn completes.

fig 75
fig 76

Format a disk

You can format any rewritable media through Disk Utility.

1) Insert your rewritable media (CD-RW, DVD-RW, Flash drive, etc.).

2) In disk utility, select the volume you would like to erase from the list on the left.

3) For most disks, except CD-RWs and DVD-RWs, you should select the format from the pull-down menu and name your disk (fig 77).

• If do not use a PC, choose “Mac OS Extended (Journaled).” Otherwise, choose “MS-DOS File System.” • If you use Mac OS 9, check the box to install drivers for that system.

4) For a more thorough erase, press “Security Options” (fig 77). Make a selection and press “OK.” (fig 78) Then select “Erase.”

Press “Quick Erase” for a less thorough erase. (It will not overwrite the data.)

fig 77
fig 78

5) In the dialog window, click “Erase.” (fig 79)

Disk Utility will show you the progress of the erase (fig 80).

fig 79
fig 80

Disk permissions

When user permissions become damaged, you can have trouble opening files or applications. You should verify and repair disk permissions after you update the system or install new software.

1) In Disk Utility, select the Macintosh HD from the list on the left hand side of the window (fig 81).

2) Press “Verify Test Permissions” (fig 82). Problems will be listed as Disk Utility finds them.

If there are problems, press “Repair Disk Permissions” when verification ends (fig 84).

3) Disk Utility will then repair all problematic disk permissions and list the corrections (fig 83).

fig 81
fig 82
fig 83